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Advanced Treatments for ASD

Page Contents
Chelation –definition
Considering treatment
Mercury and children
Mercury detoxification
Naturopathic chelation
EDTA
DMSA
DMPS
(A)LA
Non-biological treatments
Summation of Treatments
References
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Chelation -Mercury/Heavy Metal Detoxification and some Medications used

Chelation (pronounced key-lay-tion) Therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. Chelation therapy has a long history of use in clinical toxicology. For the most common forms of heavy metal toxication—those involving e.g. lead, arsenic or mercury— a number of chelating agents are available. Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate (EDTA) is used intravenously and is the treatment of choice for lead poisoning. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) has been recommended for the treatment of lead poisoning in children by Poison Centers around the world. Other chelating agents, such as 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), are used in conventional and alternative medicine.

Mercury and other heavy metal detoxification therapy are subscribed to by many medical practitioners, of which a portion is ASD specialists. This therapy is thus not just exclusively indicated for ASD patients. Chelation is a process that can take a long time to occur. This is not a once-off treatment and is usually administered over many months, sometimes longer.

Considering chelating treatment?
Dr. Stephen Edelson* reported in a study the presence of one or more heavy metals, in excess of reference ranges, in 100% of autistic children tested. The toxic metal that seems to be the biggest problem is mercury (Hg).

Mercury can cause a host of problems in our bodies. It is known to cause brain damage and other neurological problems. Furthermore, mercury disrupts immune and enzyme system function. An article by Bernard et al. compared acute mercury poisoning with autism and found some very interesting results. Signs, symptoms and laboratory tests of persons with mercury poisoning, compared with persons with autism. were very similar. That being the case, it could thus be asked whether there a link here with the cause (or one of the causes) of autism. Research indicates a very plausible idea.

Some manners in which it is thought that children get mercury in their bodies
There are a number of different thoughts and each depends on whom one talks to. It is a fact that amalgams (used to fill teeth), do contain mercury. Many people believe that vapours and particles from amalgam break down, are inhaled and ingested, and therefore enter the system. This may be during brushing your teeth, eating or drinking hot food and liquids or drilling by the dentist.

One study found that mercury injected into pregnant rats concentrated in two areas. Almost half went to the rat's brain and about half went into the growing foetus. Thus it is deduced that if a pregnant woman has amalgams that are giving off toxic vapours and/or particles, then it could be very feasible that these vapours are affecting the unborn child.

Mercury is a pollutant that is in our air, water, and soil that can be inhaled or ingested. Living and working in the vicinity of coal mines, goal mines, coal burning power stations, cement kilns, exposure to well and other subterranean water sources, trash incinerators, common household items such as compact fluorescent light bulbs and thermostats, and automobile scrap have all been cited as mercury poisoning or pollution sources.

It is also suggested that possibly the major cause of mercury in our children's systems would be from vaccines. There is major debate around this subject and currently there is no definitive study or conclusion on this matter.

Blood tests are generally used for acute poisoning, which would not be the case for most ASD children. Once the mercury enters the body it will work its way and bind to tissues and organs in a matter of weeks. This means that a blood test, even after a few months, may not show any signs of excess mercury.

Mercury can also be measured via hair, urine and stool. There does not seem to be a consensus as to which method is the most accurate, but hair seems to be a good way to test if your child has this problem or not. If your child does have high levels of mercury and you choose to have it removed, urine tests and stool samples will be used to determine how much mercury is leaving the child's body.

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How to remove mercury and other heavy metals from a child's body
There is much controversy as to what is the best way to remove mercury. There are many different therapies that are used which are basically divided into two categories. Naturopathic methods work slowly, but usually have fewer side effects, while medications such as DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic Acid), DMPS (Sodium Dimercaptopropanesul-fonate) and Lipoic Acid work much faster, but may have some risks. Certainly for an acute case of mercury poisoning, medication would be the best treatment. For chronic cases, as many ASD children seem to be, there is not yet a good answer as to which method is preferable. It is best to decide on a treatment based on the advice/consultation of a physician.

Usually when chelation therapy begins, the human body is unable to differentiate between "good" and "bad" metals. Not only are toxic metals such as mercury, tin, arsenic and lead removed, but also zinc, which is already a deficient metal for most autistic children, as well as other "good" metals. It is critical that chelation therapy be done only with direct supervision of an experienced physician in these methods. Supplementation of "good" metals is a must, hence the use of Primers and Promoters.

Heavy metal detoxification treatments are constantly being updated and changed. Protocols will most likely continue to change as biologists seek to improve results and decrease side effects.

Naturopathic chelation
Naturopathic chelation include vitamin therapy such as C and E, cilantro tea, sauna therapy, chlorella, and MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane) together with Methylcobalamin (B12). Medication has generally been given intravenously or orally. If the patient is able to swallow capsules, the oral method may be the preferred mode of treatment. Your Solution Compounding Pharmacy does offer all chelating products needed for this treatment and in any administration manner or form required; be it oral, IV, cream or rectal.

EDTA
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, widely abbreviated as EDTA , is an aminopolycarboxylic acid and a colourless, water-soluble solid. It is widely used to dissolve limescale. Its usefulness arises because of its role as a hexadentate ("six-toothed") ligand- and chelating agent, i.e. its ability to "sequester" metal ions. After being bound by EDTA, metal ions remain in solution but exhibit diminished reactivity.

EDTA is thus used to bind metal ions in chelation therapy, for treating mercury and lead poisoning. It is used in a similar manner to remove excess iron from the body. Intramuscular or Intravenous administration may be used.

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DMSA
Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is an organosulfur compound; a colourless solid containing two carboxylic acids and two thiol groups, the latter being responsible for its mildly unpleasant odour. It occurs in two diastereomers, (a meso and a chiral dl form). The meso isomer is used as a chelating agent.

Dimercaptosuccinic acid is indicated for the treatment of lead poisoning in children with blood levels measured above 45 µg/dL. DMSA can cross the blood–brain barrier of mice, but not that of humans, limiting its use to extracting heavy metals from parts of the body other than the central nervous system.

The medication may be given intravenously, which may be traumatic for both the child and parent. Frequent injections are needed and this can be unacceptable for patients. Native DMSA is not pleasant tasting, but compounding can add any flavour to make it palatable.

DMPS
2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (abbreviated DMPS) and its sodium salt (known as Unithiol) are chelating agents that form complexes with various heavy metals. They are related to dimercaprol, which is another chelating agent. The sodium salt of DMPS is found to be effective in lowering the body burden of mercury and in decreasing the urinary mercury concentration to normal levels.

A 2008 study reported a case of Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS); it is therefore recommended that careful consideration be given prior to administrating DMPS.

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(A)LA
Lipoic acid (LA), also known as α-lipoic acid and alpha lipoic acid (ALA), is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. Naturally occurring lipoic acid is always covalently bound and not readily available from dietary sources. Additionally, the amount of lipoic acid present in dietary sources is very low. Lipoic acid is present in almost all foods, but slightly more so in kidney, heart, liver, spinach, broccoli, and yeast extract.

The antioxidant effects of LA were demonstrated when it was found to prevent the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency. Owing to the presence of two thiol groups, dihydrolipoic acid is a chelating agent. It is suggested that it chelates both intracellular and extracellular mercury in the brain and in the body

Lipoic acid has the potential to cross the blood–brain barrier in humans, and unlike DMSA and DMPS, its effectiveness, is heavily dependent on the dosage and frequency of application.

ASD -Non-biological treatments
Certain patients have shown decreases in ASD symptoms, using one or more of the following therapies.
• Music therapy
• Vision therapy
• Acupuncture
• Auditory integration training
• Massage and yoga
• Neurofeedback
• Homeopathy
• Vagus nerve stimulators

Interested parties are encouraged to explore these options as therapeutic  results are frequently reported.

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Summation of Treatments and Medications leading to therapeutic improvements in certain autistic behaviours

Speech/communication Carnitine
Carnosine
GFCF diet
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Cyproheptadine
Glutamate antagonists
AIT
Tetrahydrobiopterin
B6/magnesium
AI
HBOT
Famotidine
Music therapy
Neuro-feedback
Autistic behaviour Carnosine
B6/magnesium
Probiotics
GFCF diet
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Cyproheptadine
Vision therapy
Piracetam
Folic acid/B12
Digestive enzymes
AI
HBOT
Music therapy
Social interaction Tetrahydrobiopterin
B6/magnesium
AI
HBOT
Famotidine
Massage
Carnosine
GFCF diet
Naltrexone
Oxytocin
Glutamate antagonists
Neuro-feedback
Stereotypy Vitamin C
B6/magnesium
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Famotidine
AIT
Omega 3 fatty acids
Naltrexone
Cyproheptadine
Glutamate antagonists
Massage
Hyperactivity Omega 3 fatty acids
AI
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Glutamate antagonists
Massage
Magnesium
Naltrexone
Chelation
AIT
Eye contact Tetrahydrobiopterin
AI
Famotidine
Omega 3 fatty acids
HBOT
Music therapy
Attention Omega 3 fatty acids
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Music therapy
AI
Glutamate antagonists
Sleep Melatonin
Multivitamin
Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists
Carnitine
Iron
AI: -acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; AIT: -Auditory Integration Training; GFCF: -gluten-free, casein-free diet; HBOT: -Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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References to the data above and further reading into the subject matter:
1. *Dr. Stephen M. Edelson lives in San Diego, California and serves as the Director of the Autism Research Institute. He has dedicated over 30 years of his life to autism research, and has a trademark for connecting the dots so that the latest and cutting edge research results make a true difference for the lives of people with ASD.
2. www.poison.org/current/chelation%20therapy.htm
3. Chisolm JJ (2000). "Safety and efficacy of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in children with elevated blood lead concentrations". J. Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol. 38 (4): 365–75. doi:10.1081/CLT-100100945. PMID 10930052.
4. http://scholar.google.co.za/scholar?q=Bernard+et+al.+autism+metal+mercury&hl=en&as_sdt=0&as_vis=1&oi=scholart&sa=X&ei=unMkUuL9A4iphAff_4CgBg&ved=0CCkQgQMwAA
5. Ruth DeBusk et al. (2002). "Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)". Retrieved 2007-07-25.
6. Aasath, Jan; Dag Jacobsen, Ole Andersen, Elsa Wickstrøm (March 1995). "Treatment of Mercury and Lead Poisonings with Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) and Sodium Dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS)". Analyst 120: 853ff.
7. Rooney, James (2007). "The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury". Toxicology 234 (3): 145–156. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2007.02.016. PMID 17408840.
8. Guzzi, GianPaolo; Caterina A.M. La Porta (2008). "Molecular mechanisms triggered by mercury". Toxicology 244 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2007.11.002. PMID 18077077.
9. D. Gonzalez-Ramirez, M. Zuniga-Charles, A. Narro-Juarez, Y. Molina-Recio, K. M. Hurlbut, R. C. Dart and H. V. Aposhian (1 October 1998). "DMPS (2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate, Dimaval) Decreases the Body Burden of Mercury in Humans Exposed to Mercurous Chloride" (free full text). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 287 (1): 8–12. PMID 9765315.
10. Durrani, Arjumand I. Schwartz H, Nagl M, Sontag G. (Oct 2010). "Determination of free [alpha]-lipoic acid in foodstuffs by HPLC coupled with CEAD and ESI-MS". Food Chemistry 120 (4): 38329–36. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.11.045.
11. Rosenberg, H (1959). "Effect of (alpha)-lipoic acid on vitamin C and vitamin E deficiencies". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 80: 86–93. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(59)90345-5.
12. Rooney, James, (2007). "The role of thiols, dithiols, nutritional factors and interacting ligands in the toxicology of mercury". Toxicology 234 (3): 145–156. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2007.02.016. PMID 17408840.
13. Novel and emerging treatments for autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review, by
14. Daniel A. Rossignol, MD, FAAFP -International Child Development Resource Center, Melbourne, FL, USA
15. www.aacp.com/Pages.asp?AID=8147&issue=&page=C&UID=

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Download more Studies -Recommended further reading

The following documents are available for downloading and especially readers who are carers or parents, of patients starting on chelation, are encouraged to do so. The fears of the unknown may be dispelled and parents could develop a better understanding of available treatment.

Safety and efficacy of oral DMSA therapy for children with autism
Spectrum Disorders: Part A - Medical results

James B Adams*1, Matthew Baral2, Elizabeth Geis3, Jessica Mitchell2,
Julie Ingram3, Andrea Hensley3, Irene Zappia3, Sanford Newmark4,
Eva Gehn3, Robert A Rubin5, Ken Mitchell3, Jeff Bradstreet2,6 and Jane
El-Dahr7

The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body
Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

J. B. Adams,1 M. Baral,2 E. Geis,3 J.Mitchell,1 J. Ingram,3 A.Hensley,3 I. Zappia,3 S.Newmark,4
E. Gehn,3 R. A. Rubin,5 K.Mitchell,3 J. Bradstreet,2, 6 and J.M. El-Dahr7

DMSA PROTOCOL

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